Volume 18 (2022)
Michael Kok
Morling College, Australian College of Theology, Bentley, WA, Australia
Justin Martyr was aware that many Christians in his day were describing certain texts about Jesus as euangelia, though his general preference was to categorize these writings as apomnēmoneumata and attribute them to the apostles and their assistants as a collective group. He likely included the third canonical Gospel among the “memoirs of the apostles.” However, there are no indications in his writings that he had any knowledge of the ascription of this Gospel to the Evangelist Luke. He also may not have identified Paul as one of the apostles. The tradition of Lukan authorship is not attested in any sources that predate Justin’s literary activity, including the writings of Papias of Hierapolis and Marcion of Pontus. The title “Gospel according to Luke” was likely attached to the text at the same time as the emergence of the fourfold gospel canon in the latter half of the second century and the rationale that Luke was the companion of Paul in the we-sections of the book of Acts was defended by Irenaeus of Lyon.
Craig S. Keener and Keldie Paroschi
Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, KY, USA
This article surveys the range of reasons for sleeplessness in antiquity, including deliberate wakefulness, involuntary sleeplessness, ancient medical discussions of insomnia, and midday siestas. This survey of ancient sources provides a thorough historical background in which to interpret NT figurative wakefulness and literal sleeplessness passages. This historical background can help ground metaphorical vigilance language in the NT and demonstrate how Paul’s audiences would have possibly understood his sleepless nights as potentially costly to his health yet honorable, also associating it with hard work, self-discipline and/or sacrifice on their behalf.
Sean du Toit
Alphacrucis College, Auckland, New Zealand
Ethical lists were a common feature of Greco-Roman moral discourse. Since such lists were utilized by early Christian writers, this raises the question as to their nature and purpose. Did the use of an ethical list indicate the mere repetition of conventional material or material that is significant for the authors discourse? In this article the focus is on the vice lists in 1 Pet. 2.1 and 4.15 and the virtue list in 1 Pet. 3.8. The aim here is to investigate the meaning of these vices and virtues and what they reveal concerning the audiences and the purpose of Peter’s epistle. By investigating the specific vices and virtues in 1 Peter, we will see how this author has integrated and utilized these ethical items into his discourse to help these Christians navigate life in the Greco-Roman world.